~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "The Casual Vacancy"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Publisher Hachette announced the technical glitch has happened to JK Rowling's ebook of new novel, The Casual Vacancy.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"The Casual Vacancy"

……

2012年に発表したJK Rowling氏初の大人向け新作長編小説










【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・当初紙媒体に対するこだわりを主張していたローリング氏だが、ebookでも小説を出版、

・電子書籍形態の出版が急激に拡大中で、electronic paper を利用したアマゾンの Kindle などの専用端末の発売に加え、タブレットPCやスマートフォンの登場で普及が加速する可能性も

・初の大人向け新作は Hachette からの出版だったが、formatting の問題で誤表示されてしまうという問題が発生

・年収1億ポンド(180億円)以上で、歴史上もっとも多くの報酬を得た作家とされる

・離婚後シングルマザーとして子育てをしながらという苦しい生活を送りながら小説執筆に集中した結果、1990年に遅れた電車の中で着想を得た Harry Potter は世界中でベストセラーに

・1995年に12の出版社に送られた原稿を採用したのはブルームズベリー社のみ










【Today's Vocabulary】





(1) snip


1 V adv/prep, V n

If you snip something, or if you snip at or through something, you cut it quickly using sharp scissors.


2 N-SING a N

If you say that something is a snip, you mean that it is very good value (=bargain). (BRIT INFORMAL)





(2) contraband


N-UNCOUNT oft N n

Contraband refers to goods that are taken into or out of a country illegally.





(3) forlorn


1 ADJ n, v-link ADJ, ADJ after v

If someone is forlorn, they feel alone and unhappy. (LITERARY)


2 usu ADJ n

A forlorn hope or attempt is one that you think has no chance of success.





(4) deciduous


usu ADJ n

A deciduous tree or bush is one that loses its leaves in the autumn every year (≠ evergreen).





(5) emaciated


ADJ

A person or animal that is emaciated is extremely thin and weak because of illness or lack of food.





(6) traverse


V n

If someone or something traverses an area of land or water, they go across it (=cross). (LITERARY)





(7) clot


1 N-COUNT

A clot is a sticky lump that forms when blood dries up or becomes thick.


2 V, V-ing

When blood clots, it becomes thick and forms a lump.





(8) tout


1 V n disapproval

If someone touts something, they try to sell it or convince people that it is good.


2 V for n

If someone touts for business or custom, they try to obtain it. (mainly BRIT)


3 V n

If someone touts tickets, they sell them outside a sports ground or theatre, usually for more than their original value. (BRIT; in AM, use scalp)


4 N-COUNT

A tout is someone who sells things such as tickets unofficially, usually at prices which are higher than the official ones. (BRIT; in AM, use "scalper")





(9) infatuated


oft ADJ with n

If you are infatuated with a person or thing, you have strong feelings of love or passion for them which make you unable to think clearly or sensibly about them (= obsessed).





(10) corroborate


V n

To corroborate something that has been said or reported means to provide evidence or information that supports it (=confirm). (FORMAL)





(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)






~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "Syria refugees"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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The UNHCR warns that more than 700,000 people might flee Syria by the end of 2012.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"Syria refugees"










【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・内乱に際して、既に294,000人の refugees が既に Syria を離れて Turkey、Lebanon、Jordan の難民キャンプで生活中のため、the UNHCR は humanitarian assistance を要請

・冬の到来を前に、テントで暮らしている多数の人々に対して十分な支援の手を差し伸べる必要性があると the UNHCR は警告

・Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)は1950年に設立された"難民"問題に関する国際連合の機関で、本部はジュネーヴ

・現在の高等弁務官は、1995年から2002まで自国の首相を務めた Portuguese の Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres氏

・1990~2000年の間は日本人の緒方貞子氏が高等弁務官を務めた。ちなみに緒方氏の曾祖父は元内閣総理大臣の犬養毅で、夫の緒方四十郎氏(元日銀理事)は緒方竹虎の三男。竹虎の祖父・郁蔵(本姓大戸氏)が緒方洪庵と義兄弟の盟を結んで緒方姓を名乗ったことが、緒方姓の由縁










【Today's Vocabulary】





(1) slab


N-COUNT with supp

A slab of something is a thick, flat piece of it.





(2) carouse


V

If you say that people are carousing, you mean that they are behaving very noisily and drinking a lot of alcohol as they enjoy themselves.





(3) inoculate


V n, be V-ed against n

To inoculate a person or animal means to inject a weak form of a disease into their body as a way of protecting them against the disease (=vaccinate).





(4) turret


1 N-COUNT

A turret is a small narrow tower on top of a building or a larger tower.


2 N-COUNT oft n N

The turret on a tank or warship is the part where the guns are fixed, which can be turned in any direction.





(5) addendum


N-COUNT

An addendum is an additional section at the end of a book or document (=appendix).





(6) elated


usu v-link ADJ

If you are elated, you are extremely happy and excited because of something that has happened (= euphoric).





(7) wanton


1 usu ADJ n

A wanton action deliberately causes harm, damage, or waste without having any reason to.


2 ADJ disapproval

If someone describes a woman as wanton, they disapprove of her because she clearly enjoys sex or has sex with a lot of men.





(8) deprecate


V n

If you deprecate something, you criticize it. (FORMAL)





(9) veracity


N-UNCOUNT

Veracity is the quality of being true or the habit of telling the truth. (FORMAL)





(10) finesse


N-UNCOUNT

If you do something with finesse, you do it with great skill and style.






(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)






~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "Liaoning"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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China's first aircraft carrier has entered into service.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"Liaoning"

……

遼寧










【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・中国は1998年に旧ソ連が崩壊した後ウクライナから購入した空母ヴァリャーグ Varyag を「遼寧 Liaoning」と名付けて就役させる

・中国人民解放軍 Peaople's Liberation Army (PLA)は、1927年8月1日に建軍され、2007年のデータでは総兵力224万人、予備役約50万人に加え、人民武装警察66万人で、1980~90年代にかけて兵力削減と同時に近代化を実施

・2009年のデータでは中国は約6兆9000億円の予算を軍事費に投入(GDPで占める割合は1.4%)、中国の軍事予算はアメリカ・イギリスに次いで、世界第3位の規模だが、実質的には1.5~3倍ほど大きいと見られる(米に次いで2位)

・2007年5月にはアメリカ太平洋軍総司令官海軍大将に対し、中国海軍幹部がハワイを基点に米中で太平洋を東西分割する構想を提案するという動向も見られた

・アメリカは11隻の空母を保有し、現在3隻を新たに建造中









【Today's Vocabulary】





(1) keel over


PHRASAL VERB V P

If someone keels over, they collapse because they are tired or ill. (INFORMAL)





(2) bungle


V n, V-ed

If you bungle something, you fail to do it properly, because you make mistakes or are clumsy (= botch).


N-COUNT

Bungle is also a noun.





(3) truncated


truncated


usu ADJ n

A truncated version of something is one that has been shortened.





(4) staid


ADJ

If you say that someone or something is staid, you mean that they are serious, dull, and rather old-fashioned.





(5) regale


be V-ed n with n

If someone regales you with stories or jokes, they tell you a lot of them, whether you want to hear them or not.





(6) camaraderie


N-UNCOUNT

Camaraderie is a feeling of trust and friendship among a group of people who have usually known each other for a long time or gone through some kind of experience together.





(7) perforation


N-COUNT usu pl

Perforations are small holes that are made in something, especially in paper.





(8) sordid


1 ADJ disapproval

If you describe someone's behaviour as sordid, you mean that it is immoral or dishonest.


2 ADJ disapproval

If you describe a place as sordid, you mean that it is dirty, unpleasant, or depressing (=seedy).





(9) vestige


N-COUNT usu N of n

A vestige of something is a very small part that still remains of something that was once much larger or more important. (FORMAL)





(10) debar


usu passive, be V-ed from n/-ing

If you are debarred from doing something, you are prevented from doing it by a law or regulation (= ban). (FORMAL)





(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "Homeland"

さてそろそろ英検の試験実施日程が近づいてきました。ボキャビルのギアを上げていきたいと思います(10語/号)。このあたりの語彙になると、学校英語では見なれない言葉も多いですので、出来るだけ繰り返していきたいと思います。


語彙項目では2009年以降の英検1級一次試験で、実際に選択肢や本文中で出題された語彙を中心に、試験本番まで毎回取り上げて参ります。


そのなかから今後も出題される可能性も高いと思いますし、大体これぐらいのレベルの語彙が出題されるんだなという感覚を掴むためにも、一語でも多く目を通しておきたいところです。










~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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American TV drama series "Homeland" has won the Emmy Award of this year.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"Homeland"

……

イラクで数年間戦争捕虜の日々を過ごした海兵隊員が、帰国後にアルカイダのエージェントではないかという嫌疑をかけられるホームドラマ・シリーズ(日本ではFOXチャンネルで放映)


(語義~BBC News Website)










【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Emmy Award/Emmy は、米 The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (Los Angeles)主催の、テレビドラマやドキュメンタリー番組、制作技術や放送機器などを対象としたコンクール賞

・国際エミー賞 International Emmys は、2004年~は International Academy of Television Arts
& Sciences が主催

・放送業界で最も権威があるEmmy Awardに相当する賞として有名なものは、Academy Awards (film)、Grammy Awards (music)、Tony Award (theatre)など

・日本の番組としては、1975年に『君は明日を掴(つか)めるか――貴くんの4745日』(日本テレビ)、1980年に『四季・ユートピアノ』(NHK)、1982年に『一年生になりました――五つ子6年間の記録』(NHK)、1989年に『課外授業ようこそ先輩―戦争を学ぶ 命を考える』(NHK)、1999年に「映像'90『ふつうのままで』」(毎日放送)が受賞している










【Today's Vocabulary】





(1) virulent


1 ADJ usu ADJ n

Virulent feelings or actions are extremely bitter and hostile (=
vicious). (FORMAL)


2 ADJ

A virulent disease or poison is extremely powerful and dangerous.





(2) dribble


1 V prep/adv, V n prep/adv

If a liquid dribbles somewhere, or if you dribble it, it drops down
slowly or flows in a thin stream (= trickle).


2 V n, V, V-ing

When players dribble the ball in a game such as football or
basketball, they keep kicking or tapping it quickly in order to keep
it moving.


3 V

If a person dribbles, saliva drops slowly from their mouth (= drool).


4 N-UNCOUNT

Dribble is saliva that drops slowly from someone's mouth (= drool).





(3) acclimatize



in BRIT, also use acclimatise


V to n, V pron-refl, V

When you acclimatize or are acclimatized to a new situation, place, or
climate, you become used to it. (FORMAL)





(4) recluse


N-COUNT usu sing

A recluse is a person who lives alone and deliberately avoids other
people.




(5) charlatan


N-COUNT disapproval

You describe someone as a charlatan when they pretend to have skills
or knowledge that they do not really possess. (FORMAL)





(6) retract


1 V n, V

If you retract something that you have said or written, you say that
you did not mean it (=withdraw). (FORMAL)


2 V, also V n

When a part of a machine or a part of a person's body retracts or is
retracted, it moves inwards or becomes shorter. (FORMAL)




(7) waylay


V n, get V-ed

If someone waylays you, they stop you when you are going somewhere,
for example in order to talk to you, to steal something from you, or
to attack you.




(8) tenet


N-COUNT with supp, oft N of n

The tenets of a theory or belief are the main principles on which it
is based (= principle). (FORMAL)




(9) tryst


N-COUNT

A tryst is a meeting between lovers in a quiet secret place (=
assignation). (LITERARY)





(10) petulant


ADJ

Someone who is petulant is unreasonably angry and upset in a childish
way.





(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~  "hate crime"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Samuel Mullet, Amish breakaway group leader, and his group members have been found guilty of hate crimes such as cutting the beard or hair of community members.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"hate crime"

……

憎悪犯罪、憎悪に起因する犯罪、人種間対立から起こる犯罪: 人種差別犯罪、宗教差別犯罪、など


(語義~英辞郎 on the WEB)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Amishは米ペンシルベニア州・中西部や加オンタリオ州などに20万人ほど居住するドイツ・オランダ系のキリスト教と共同体に忠実な宗教集団だが、オリジナルはスイスから発生

・Amish独特の生活などは映画『刑事ジョン・ブック Witness』(1985)で有名

・Amishは電気を使わない生活を維持しており、電話なども使用せず、農耕や牧畜による自給自足の生活をしている

・基本的に近代以前の技術のみを使用するため、移動は自動車ではなく馬車

・口ひげは生やしてはいけないが顎髭や頬髭はいいとされる









【Today's Vocabulary】



breakaway


ADJ n

A breakaway group is a group of people who have separated from a larger group, for example because of a disagreement (= splinter).



coop


N-COUNT

A coop is a cage where you keep small animals or birds such as chickens and rabbits.



hate crime


N-COUNT

A hate crime is a crime, especially against people such as homosexuals and members of ethnic minorities, that is motivated by feelings of hatred.



wistful


ADJ

Someone who is wistful is rather sad because they want something and know that they cannot have it.





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "the US Congressional Gold Medal "

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Aung San Suu Kyi finally received the US Congressional Gold Medal which was awarded her under house arrest in 2008.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"the US Congressional Gold Medal "

……

議会名誉黄金勲章



(語義~ Wikipedia)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Congressional Gold Medalは、Presidential Medal of Freedomと並んで、アメリカ議会から授与される最も栄誉あるcivilian award

・過去にはGeorge WashingtonやThomas Edison、Sir Winston Churchill、Col. Charles A. Lindbergh、Mother Teresa、Nelson Mandela、Neil Armstrong、"Buzz" Aldrin, Jr.らが受賞

・現在訪米中のスーチー氏は "one of the most moving days of my life"と述べ、オバマ大統領らと会談

・経済制裁を実施していたアメリカだがThein Sein政権は2011年からdemocratic reformを開始

・Aung San Suu Kyi氏はビルマの野党であるNational League for Democracy (NLD)のchairpersonであり、1990年選挙でNLDは81%の議席を獲得したが、民主化を恐れる軍事政権により以後自宅軟禁 house arrest 状態が続く(1989年からつい2年ほど前までの15年)

・1991年にはNobel Peace Prizeを受賞している





【Today's Vocabulary】



appraise


V n

If you appraise something or someone, you consider them carefully and form an opinion about them (= evaluate). (FORMAL)



non-alignment


in AM, also use nonalignment

N-UNCOUNT

Non-alignment is the state or policy of being non-aligned.



concoct


1 V n

If you concoct an excuse or explanation, you invent one that is not true.


2 V n

If you concoct something, especially something unusual, you make it by mixing several things together.





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "47%"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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In secretly filmed video Mr Mitt Romney mentioned the 47% Americans do not pay income tax, and those who support President Obama would never vote for him.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"47%"





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・大統領選の7週間前に、Mr Romneyは隠しカメラ secret video による映像コメントによって打撃を受けている

・ビデオでは、ロムニー氏は"almost half of Americans "believe that they are victims"といった国内事情や、中東地域についても言及(「Palestinians do not want peace in the Middle East. パレスチナ人は平和を欲していない」等

・火曜日のTV interview (Fox)では、ロムニー氏は「the 47% of Americans who do not pay income tax. 所得税を払わない47%のアメリカ人」について、「彼らはオバマ大統領に投票するだろう」と述べて自説を擁護、"I'm talking about a perspective of individuals who are not likely to support me,"と弁明

・最新のNBC News/Wall Street Journal Pollでは、オバマ大統領の支持率が50%に到達し、ロムニー氏を5%リードしたとも

・アメリカ政府の歳入源の二つの柱は、給与税 payroll taxes(28.3%) と所得税 income taxes(53.6%) 、残る10.3%は引退した the elderly で、6.9%は税金未納者層





【Today's Vocabulary】



gaffe


1 N-COUNT

A gaffe is a stupid or careless mistake, for example when you say or do something that offends or upsets people (= blunder).


2 PHRASE V inflects

If you blow the gaffe or blow the gaff, you tell someone something that other people wanted you to keep secret. (BRIT INFORMAL)



chide


V n for/about -ing/n, V n

If you chide someone, you speak to them angrily because they have done something wicked or foolish (= scold). (OLD-FASHIONED)



payroll


N-COUNT oft on N

The people on the payroll of a company or an organization are the people who work for it and are paid by it. (BUSINESS)



clip


1 N-COUNT

A clip is a small device, usually made of metal or plastic, that is specially shaped for holding things together.


2 V n to/on n, V n prep/adv, V to n, V-ed

When you clip things together or when things clip together, you fasten them together using a clip or clips.


3 N-COUNT oft n N, N from/of n

A clip from a film or a radio or television programme is a short piece of it that is broadcast separately.


4 V n

If you clip something, you cut small pieces from it, especially in order to shape it.


5 V n from/out of n

If you clip something out of a newspaper or magazine, you cut it out.


6 V n

If something clips something else, it hits it accidentally at an angle before moving off in a different direction.





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "anti-Japan protests"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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China-Japan row on the disputed islands brought fresh anti-Japan protests and will surge on the anniversary of the "Mukden incident".

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【Today's Buzzword】


"anti-Japan protests"

……

反日デモ





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Mukden incident (Manchurian Incident)は満州事変を指し、1931年9月18日関東軍によって仕掛けられた線路爆破事件である柳条湖事件(中国は九一八事変と呼ぶ)が発端、日本軍は5か月で満洲全土を占領

・中国全土で起きた反日デモの影響で、Panasonic・Canon・Honda・Nissan・Mazda・Sony・Seven & I Holdings・Toyotaといった各日本企業に被害が続出

・中国は先にChunxiao gas fieldを「楔(くさび)」となるような大陸棚海域に設置して既に日本の国益を侵害中

・ 漁船や漁業監視船 fisheries patrol boa が尖閣諸島海域に出没し、中国の海洋権益への関心の高さが露呈





【Today's Vocabulary】



revile


V be V-ed, V n

If someone or something is reviled, people hate them intensely or show their hatred of them (= hate). (FORMAL)



pugnacious


ADJ

Someone who is pugnacious is always ready to quarrel or start a fight. (FORMAL)



reticent


ADJ oft ADJ about/on n

Someone who is reticent does not tell people about things.



inchoate


ADJ

If something is inchoate, it is recent or new, and vague or not yet properly developed (= unformed). (FORMAL)





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "hantavirus" 

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Yosemite park rangers have warned 230,000 campers who have stayed there since June. There is no known cure for the mouse-borne hantavirus.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"hantavirus"

……

〔名〕

ハンタウイルス:ブニヤウイルス科に分類されるRNAウイルス。さまざまな種類のネズミが宿主となっており、そのふん尿や唾液中にウイルスを排せつし、それらの飛まつが感染源となって人に感染し、急性かつ高熱を特徴とする疾患を引き起こす。2003年現在、人から人への感染は一般には起こらないと考えられている。



(語義~英辞郎 on the WEB)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Hantavirusはトガリネズミなどを宿主として、腎症候性出血熱 "Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)"、ハンタウイルス肺症候群 "Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)"、ハンタウイルス心肺症候群 "Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS)"などを引き起こす

・ネズミの糞尿にウイルスが存在して、それらの粒子が空気中に飛散することにより空気感染を引き起こすとされる

・原因不明の風土病として20世紀初頭より認識されていた

・樹齢1,000年以上で高さ80メートル以上のセコイアの巨木や渓谷の美などで有名なYosemite National Parkは、アメリカのカリフォルニア州中央部に位置し、1984年にユネスコの世界遺産(自然遺産)として登録

・多様なコースと年中通じて登れることから、ヨセミテは世界中で人気があるロッククライミングの名所でもある





【Today's Vocabulary】



strident


1 ADJ disapproval

If you use strident to describe someone or the way they express themselves, you mean that they make their feelings or opinions known in a very strong way that perhaps makes people uncomfortable.


2 ADJ

If a voice or sound is strident, it is loud, harsh, and unpleasant to listen to.



itinerant


1 ADJ ADJ n

An itinerant worker travels around a region, working for short periods in different places (= travelling). (FORMAL)


2 N-COUNT

An itinerant is someone whose way of life involves travelling around, usually someone who is poor and homeless. (FORMAL)



expunge


V n, V n from n, V n from n

If you expunge something, you get rid of it completely, because it causes problems or bad feelings. (FORMAL)




(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "must-have"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Nintendo has revealed it will launch "Wii U" game console in December.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"must-have"

……

みんなが持っているもの、流行りもの


(語義~ BBC News Website)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・任天堂は今年の12月8日に「Wii U」を市場に投入すると発表

・機種は2種類あり8GBのbasic versionが$337(£210; \26,250)、32GBで"touchscreen controller"機能が付いているpremium versionが$405(£251l; \31,500)

・PlayStation、Xboxと並ぶゲーム御三家の任天堂だが、最近はtablet PCに押され気味

・ゲーム機の発売と併せて"New Super Mario Bros U"も発売されるとのことで、16年間の歴史で新ソフトと新ハードのコンビが同時に投入されるのは初

・あるジャーナリストは「機能の割に比較的お買い得」と評価

・来年末に新発売が予定されている新しいXboxとPlayStationはさらに高額な商品となることが予想されている





【Today's Vocabulary】



schism


N-VAR

When there is a schism, a group or organization divides into two groups as a result of differences in thinking and beliefs (= split). (FORMAL)



parable


N-COUNT oft N of n

A parable is a short story, which is told in order to make a moral or religious point, like those in the Bible.



copious


ADJ usu ADJ n

A copious amount of something is a large amount of it (= abundant).



gamut


1 N-SING usu the N of n

The gamut of something is the complete range of things of that kind, or a wide variety of things of that kind (= range).


2 PHRASE V inflects

To "run the gamut of" something means to include, express, or experience all the different things of that kind, or a wide variety of them.





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)






~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "iPhone 5"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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On Wednesday Apple Inc. launches iPhone 5, the latest version of the company's handheld.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"iPhone 5"





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Apple Inc.は米カリフォルニア州クパティーノに本社を置く、革新的なヴィジョナリー企業だが、創業されたのは1974

・2011年8月10日に時価総額がエクソンモービルを抜き世界一を記録

・Steve Jobs氏は歴史に名を残すカリスマ経営者だったが、2011年10月5日に56歳でこの世を去る

・iPhone 5はジョブズ氏が逝去した以後で初の新製品となるが、アナリストの中には「もはや面白みに欠ける」という評価も

・iPhoneやiPadを続々と送り出し世界のPC界を変えてきた革新的なリーダーを失ったアップル社の今後の動きが注目される





【Today's Vocabulary】



exemplary


1 ADJ usu ADJ n

If you describe someone or something as exemplary, you think they are extremely good.


2 ADJ usu ADJ n

An exemplary punishment is unusually harsh and is intended to stop other people from committing similar crimes.



rectitude


N-UNCOUNT

Rectitude is a quality or attitude that is shown by people who behave honestly and morally according to accepted standards. (FORMAL)



elucidate


V n, V

If you elucidate something, you make it clear and easy to understand (= clarify). (FORMAL)



innocuous


ADJ

Something that is innocuous is not at all harmful or offensive (= harmless). (FORMAL)





(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 


Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Government officials of Yemen say Said al-Shihri, the second-in-command of al-Qaeda, has been killed in southern Yemen.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)"

……

アラブ半島のアルカイダ



(語義~BBC News Website)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・アルカイダのそもそもの起源は旧ソ連のアフガン侵攻時にCIAとパキスタン軍統合情報局(ISI)が訓練・武装化させたムジャハディーン(イスラム義勇兵)

・カイダは「大本・基地・基盤・座」を意味し、英語だと"base"

・アラブ半島のアルカイダ "al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)は2009年にサウジアラビアとイエメンのアルカイダが合流する形で成立し、東イエメンに根拠

・スンニ派ムスリムによる過激派テロリスト集団の国際ネットワーク

・2001年に実行したアメリカ同時多発テロ事件が未だに大きな影響を残している

・2011年5月にOsama Bin Ladenはアメリカ軍によって殺害された

・現在のOsama Bin Laden亡き後のアルカイダでは、エジプト人のアイマン・ザワヒーリー氏が後継者となることが予想されている





【Today's Vocabulary】



drone


1 V, V-ing

If something drones, it makes a low, continuous, dull noise.


2 V disapproval

If you say that someone drones, you mean that they keep talking about something in a boring way.


PHRASAL VERB V P, V P about n


"Drone on" means the same as drone.



offshoot


N-COUNT usu with poss

If one thing is an offshoot of another, it has developed from that other thing.



oust


be V-ed, V n, V-ed

If someone is ousted from a position of power, job, or place, they are forced to leave it. (JOURNALISM)



synagogue


N-COUNT; N-IN-NAMES

A synagogue is a building where Jewish people meet to worship or to study their religion.





(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)


~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "economic slowdown"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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Chinese imports and exports were worse than expected in August, which spurs fears on its economic slowdown.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"economic slowdown"





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・中国のmanufacturing sectorはeconomic growthの牽引車

・中国の輸出は2.7%の伸びだが、輸入は2.6%低下

・アナリストは中国の内需が十分に成長していないことを危惧

・global financial crisisに関連して欧米市場の落ち込みが中国にも影響

・当初予想されていた今年後半の経済成長が実現しない可能性も





【Today's Vocabulary】



lassitude


N-UNCOUNT

Lassitude is a state of tiredness, laziness, or lack of interest. (FORMAL)



scion


N-COUNT usu N of n

A scion of a rich or famous family is one of its younger or more recent members. (LITERARY)



truncated


ADJ usu ADJ n

A truncated version of something is one that has been shortened.





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "generational choice"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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"I never said journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now,"

"But when you pick up that ballot to vote - you will face the the clearest choice of any time in a generation.

"Over the next few years, big decisions will be made in Washington: on jobs and the economy; taxes and deficits; energy and education; war and peace - decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and our children's lives for decades to come,"

"I recognise that times have changed since I first spoke to this convention. The times have changed - and so have I. I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president."

-- US President Barack Obama

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【Today's Buzzword】


"generational choice"





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・Vice-President Joe Bidenはオバマ大統領に先だって、自動車産業の立て直しとOsama Bin Laden殺害の功績を強調

・不人気のhealthcare lawについては言及しない作戦か

・millions of new acres for oil and gas explorationを追求し、さらに多くを開発するとエネルギー政策について示唆し、アメリカ国民の利益となるように誘導していくことを言明

・民主党は大統領・副大統領ともに、100万人分のjob創出をはじめ、中間層に対する手厚いサポートを全面に打ち出す

・アメリカ大統領選投票日は来月となる11月6日





【Today's Vocabulary】



reprise


N-COUNT

In music, if there is a reprise, an earlier section of music is repeated.



rouse


1 V n, V

If someone rouses you when you are sleeping or if you rouse, you wake up (= wake). (LITERARY)


2 V pron-refl to-inf, V pron-refl from n

If you rouse yourself, you stop being inactive and start doing something.


3 V n, be V-ed to n

If something or someone rouses you, they make you very emotional or excited.


4 V n

If something rouses a feeling in you, it causes you to have that feeling.



bluster


V with quote, V

If you say that someone is blustering, you mean that they are speaking aggressively but without authority, often because they are angry or offended.





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 





Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "4 more years!"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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"If you want a 'you're on your own, winner take all society' you should support the Republican ticket,"

"If you want a country of shared opportunities and shared responsibilities - a 'we're all in it together' society - you should vote for Barack Obama and Joe Biden,"

-- Former US President Bill Clinton

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【Today's Buzzword】


"4 more years!"





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・現職のオバマ大統領の姿勢は"Middle Class First"だと謳い、共和党候補は「1%の富裕層のための政治家」と50分のスピーチで反撃

・最大の争点となりそうなのが経済問題、クリントン元大統領は、「オバマ大統領は自分が着任した時よりもはるかに悪い状態の経済を立て直してきた」とオバマ政権を擁護

・North CarolinaのCharlotteで開催された民主党の党大会では、白人のworking-classに対するアピールが狙い

・現在のところ民主党と共和党は"neck and neck"な状態でどちらが勝者となるかは微妙

・「これまでに行った経済対策の効果はこれから後に実感できるようになる」と、経済政策面でバックアップを強調

・アメリカ経済の行方は日本の経済にも大きな影響を与えるため、アメリカ経済の立て直しを実践できる人物が大統領に就任するかどうかは日本にとっても死活的に重要





【Today's Vocabulary】





rabid


1 ADJ usu ADJ n disapproval

You can use rabid to describe someone who has very strong and unreasonable

opinions or beliefs about a subject, especially in politics.


2 ADJ usu ADJ n

A rabid dog or other animal has the disease rabies.



sally


1 N-COUNT

Sallies are clever and amusing remarks. (LITERARY)


2 V forth, V prep/adv

If someone sallies forth or sallies somewhere, they go out into a rather

difficult, dangerous, or unpleasant situation in a brave or confident way.

(LITERARY)


N-COUNT

Sally is also a noun.



deprecate


V n

If you deprecate something, you criticize it. (FORMAL)



commodious


ADJ usu ADJ n

A commodious room or house is large and has a lot of space. (WRITTEN)



(語義~Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "World Economic Forum"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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The World Economic Forum announced annual Global Competitiveness Report.

Switzerland topped the ranking, followed by Singapore and then Finland.

It also says the United States is seventh, the UK is eighth and Japan is tenth in the survey of 144 economies.

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【Today's Buzzword】


"World Economic Forum"

……

「世界経済フォーラム」(http://www.weforum.org/)


(語義~Wikipedia)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・World Economic Forum(WEF)は1971年にスイス人経済学者クラウス・シュワブによって設立されたスイスに本部を置く非営利財団

・スイスのダボスで開催される年次総会が影響力を持つばかりでなく、年中に地域会議が開催される

・ミッションは「世界の現状の改善に向けて取り組むこと」

・1,000社に上る会員企業から運営資金を捻出

・毎年1月末に開催される年次総会は「ダボス会議」としてイベント化(招待者のみ参加)





【Today's Vocabulary】



assiduous


ADJ

Someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly (= diligent).


callous


ADJ

A callous person or action is very cruel and shows no concern for other people or their feelings.



garbled


ADJ

A garbled message or report contains confused or wrong details, often because it is spoken by someone who is nervous or in a hurry.



interminable


ADJ emphasis

If you describe something as interminable, you are emphasizing that it continues for a very long time and indicating that you wish it was shorter or would stop (= endless)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "swing state"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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"I stood with American workers, I stood with American manufacturing, I believed in you,"

"I bet on you. I'll make that bet any day of the week and because of that bet, three years later, that bet is paying off for America."

-- the US President Barack Obama

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【Today's Buzzword】


"swing state"

……

無党派層が多い州、選挙ごとに支持政党が変わる州

(語義~Wikipedia)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・どっちつかずの投票者が多い州は、別名"battleground state"や"purple state"と呼ばれる

・1980年代からOhio州はswing stateとして有名

・Florida州は2000年の選挙でカギとなった州として有名

・同様の語句としては"swing voter"。浮動票として、無党派の人々をどれだけ取り込めるかで大きく結果が変わってくるとされる





【Today's Vocabulary】



surreptitious


ADJ

A surreptitious action is done secretly (= furtive).



prevaricate


V

If you prevaricate, you avoid giving a direct answer or making a firm decision.



chime in with (or chime with)


PHRASAL V: V P P n, V P n

If one thing "chimes in with" another thing or "chimes with" it, the two things are similar or consistent with each other.





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ "thalidomide"

~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~





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The Gruenenthal Group said "Very sorry."

German company that invented thalidomide issued its apology at first time.

□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□





【Today's Buzzword】


"thalidomide"

……

【名】
《薬学》サリドマイド


(語義~英辞郎 on the WEB)





【Background Knowledge ~なぜ今それなわけ?~】


・サリドマイドは1950年代に睡眠補助剤として開発された。

・1957年~61年の間に発売されたが、奇形児が誕生する原因と豪州で判明してからは、61年中に販売が中止された

・日本では大日本住友製薬株式会社(当時:第日本製薬株式会社)が販売していたが、副作用が世界的問題となるまで約2年間販売

・被害者グループは謝罪は侮辱的で不十分として、被害を補償することを求めている

・医療・薬事の関わる会社の責任の大きさが改めて問われることに

・サリドマイド患者としては、白井のり子さんなどが日本人では著名





【Today's Vocabulary】


insidious


ADJ

Something that is insidious is unpleasant or dangerous and develops gradually without being noticed.



inveterate


ADJ n

If you describe someone as, for example, an inveterate liar or smoker, you mean that they have lied or smoked for a long time and are not likely to stop doing it.



supplication


N-VAR

A supplication is a prayer to God or a respectful request to someone in authority for help. (FORMAL)



charlatan


N-COUNT disapproval

You describe someone as a charlatan when they pretend to have skills or knowledge that they do not really possess. (FORMAL)



(語義~ Collins COBUILD Dictionary)





~☆今日のBuzzword!from BBC☆~ 

Topic : 英語・英会話学習 - Genre : School

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evangelista

Author:evangelista
日本人英語学習者の立場・視点から、主に英語テストを通じて実用に耐える英語運用能力を身につける手法を追及しています。

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